BearHead Photography has many images to showcase his expansive portfolio on mammals of North America, and here are his deer, elk, moose, and caribou photos.
It's not often you come across three bull moose hanging out together. I first only saw one moose, and it was only once I hiked up and over a hill did I see that there were three moose. After spending over three hours with them and only getting mediocre pictures, that all changed in a heartbeat. I couldn't believe my good fortune when they all left the pond and went up on the ridge and stood still for just a few moments. Being all along with these moose with this setting was a moment I will never forget. Edition of 40.
It is hard to understand just how vast Alaska is until you have been. Denali is over 6 million acres, and the majority of that land is all backcountry access only. Wildlife can truly live their lives and never be influenced by human activity. A large moose takes advantage of a nice evening to eat from a pond and to get away from the bugs. Edition of 40.
While in Denali, I love being in the backcountry exploring on my own. It is so fun to be off the beaten path and find animals by myself. Once I found these moose, I did my best to track them across the endless tundra. When they walked the ridge above this pond, I knew all the tracking I had done had more than been worth, and I could reflect back on how great the state of Alaska is! Edition of 40.
Into the Mist
Not long after I spotted this bull elk, his females headed for the river. It was a foggy morning, but when I got to the river, there was more fog there than in the meadow. It was such a neat, eerie feeling seeing the elk go in the river and disappear in the fog. In the fall when the temperature drops over night, a fog can occur, and it provided a dramatic scene for this large bull elk as he entered the water. Edition of 40.
The amount of time I search for animals in Denali, as compared to how much I find and get to photograph animals, is dramatically different. So when I find an animal in an amazing place, it is that much more exciting. Watching these three moose move together in the lake while the Alaskan range was out was 9 years of waiting. I've looked and looked for moose here, and I just knew one day they would be there. I didn't expect three, but getting to be there and capture them in the lake was incredible.
A Grand Morning
The Grand Tetons are a spectacular mountain range. As I headed out this morning they were not in view due to the fog. All of a sudden they appeared and the morning light was just hitting them. I found a pronghorn and it ran on top of this hill to show the awesome grandeour of the Tetons. Edition of 40.
I knew this morning that the sunrise would be nice. When I heard en elk bugle, I began to search quickly for him. Seeing him stand their in front of the mountain as he called out was a great moment. Edition of 40.
It is not very often that you have a crystal clear view of Denali. On my last camping trip of the summer I was fortunate to come across this scene. In Wonder Lake was a mother and calf moose taking there time eating the grass of the bottom of the lake. I could not think of a better way to end my summer. Edition of 40.
I love getting off the road and away from everyone and finding my own shot. There are many times I spend hiking through the tundra or woods and don't come up with anything. But those moments when you do find wildlife to yourself are the moments you never forget. When I found these three bull moose together I was ecstatic. I followed them for over three hours before this special moment occurred, and I was more than happy that I waited and followed to see what photographic opportunities they would present.
It is very difficult to find moose in Denali. The brush is often taller than the moose, and you have to wait for them to come into a clearing to see them. At first I saw only one moose, but then another came out, and a long time later a third even came out. When these two decided to go to the pond together, I knew the wait was worth it. Capturing two male moose reflected with the backdrop of an old glacier and snow capped mountains was very thrilling.
I never tire of finding a monster elk. This elk had huge mass in his antlers, and also had many points. Seeing him walk around, it was obvious he was the king and he knew it. He was a beautiful animal, and it's great to know animals like this still exist in the wild! Edition of 40.
This is the largest bull elk I have ever seen! He was truly huge, and the way he carried himself showed how much he knew he was king of the area. Early one morning he was rounding up his females, and he went on this hill to look around. The recent snow on the mountains, and his beauty, created a perfect picture to start the day. Edition of 40.
The fall in Denali is my favorite season of the year! The colors and activity of the animals always gets me up early in the morning. I hiked many miles to have an opportunity to photograph this moose. I had gotten good shots, but after he moved up the hill to scare another bull moose off, did I finally get a shot that showed just how endless the valleys of Denali are. Edition of 40.
Moose are very large and in charge. Moose have short tempers and don't like people or other animals being in their space. I was well over 75 yards from this moose, but he let me know it was time to back up, and I listened and moved quickly.
Finding a bull moose in the snow was a goal of mine. The year prior when it snowed, all the bull moose left and didn't show themselves. So, when I saw this guy in the snow in the fall colors I didn't leave him until I had every possible angle I could find with him in the snow. Edition of 40.
Only dedicated photographers get up long before the sun and head out to look for silhouettes. Silhouettes of wildlife are not easy, and rarely does an animal actually go on a high point in the short amount of time a silhouette works. But when they do, it creates a dramatic memorable photo! Edition of 40.
There are places in nature I go to repeatedly hoping to one day find an animal in that place. This is one of those areas that I went for 9 years since I last saw a moose here. The excitement when I saw not only one moose, but three moose was off the charts. These three moose continued to hang out together and created a perfect setting in the backcountry of Denali.
Beauty of Alaska
Finding an animal of the size is always a thrill. After finding him, I was hoping to be able to put him in the environment and show just how large he is. After following him around for over an hour, he finally went in a low vegetation area, and I positioned myself right in front of him as he walked through. Edition of 40.
In late fall, mule deer will go into rut and begin to fight for the right to mate. Earlier this morning these three deer were sizing each other up, but not doing anything serious. All of a sudden the two smaller bucks began to fight, and the larger deer came back to break it up. Edition of 40.
Light is a beautiful thing of nature. Some days we have too much light, and others none at all. When a surprising beam of light shines through the clouds and onto the subject, it makes the scene come to life. This female moose was in the right spot at the right time and the light made the scene much more dramatic than just a few seconds prior.
Some of the most beautiful things in nature happen at the beginning and end of each day. I heard this elk bugling in the dark, so I wandered into the woods to find him. As the sun was beginning to light the clouds, he crossed a ridge in front of me and moved on quietly through the forest. Edition of 40.
The Denali landscape is full of undulating land and many valleys. When looking from above, you normally can't see all those dips in the landscape, but from this vantage point I could. I also managed to find three bull moose moving across the valley, only soon to disappear into one of those valleys. The Denali landscape is large and feels as if it is never ending. Edition of 40.
Fall is Coming
During the fall in Denali, the underbrush all turns a beautiful red. The fall is also when moose shed their velvet and show their polished antlers. This bull moose was just starting to shed his velvet and get into the spirit of fall. Edition of 40.
The Great Caribou
Large bull caribou can have really strange looking antlers once they are fully grown. They roam the far north and are continuously on the move looking for food and to get away from the bugs. There is not a really large herd in Denali like there use to be, but this large guy was alone one morning and went on a small ridge to look out over the valley and up at Denali. Edition of 40.
Pyramid Peak is one of the first mountains to receive light in the morning. I'm always hoping to find an elk near the river where the mountain is reflected in the morning. Finally, after days of waiting, I had my elk at first light and was able to capture both reflected in the river. Edition of 40.
After trekking miles with this moose, I still wasn't sure I was going to be able to get any pictures of him. He always stayed just far enough out of good photo range. Finally, he stood on a ridge and looked back and me ( and I wondered what was going through his head). It was a powerful moment in the backcountry on a beautiful evening. Edition of 40.
It is hard to imagine an animal this large looking small, but that is what Mt. McKinley does. It is amazing that an animal can grow antlers this large each year, but the over powering size of the tallest mountain in North America makes them seem small. Edition of 40.
It had been very difficult to photograph this elk, as it had been in the shade behind the hill. He heard another bull elk bugle, so he ran to look at his competitor, and as he did the last light illuminated him against the dark forest. Edition of 40.
There is only a small window in the morning and evening when the light is golden. I found this deer well before light, and stayed with him waiting for the sun to rise. Once it did, I had my perfect subject in the perfect light!
The rut is a serious time if you are a male elk. For a short period of time, they have a chance to mate. Bull elk can fight for a couple months to determine who has the right to mate. Fall was mostly gone, but these two large bulls were still fighting to see who was more powerful and dominant than the other one. Edition of 40.
The moose in Alaska are the biggest moose on the planet. They are huge animals and when close to one you really feel small. When this moose stopped on the ridge above this pond with Denali behind him, I felt small in the scope of the scene I was in. Edition of 40.
In the backcountry of Denali, there are a lot of animals, but the space is so expansive you don't always see animals. Caribou can look like little dots moving on the tundra because the area is so large. We were going after a moose, when this large caribou came over the ridge unexpectedly. He was unsure of us, but stopped and looked at us on the ridge a couple of minutes before moving on.
I love capturing the beauty of natural light. The best light can come and go so fast, and having an animal in the right spot when the light is good is rare. It's those moments that we spend all the time in the wild looking for animals. This caribou decided to walk the ridge, which was where the sun was lighting while the mountains were covered in a dark cloud. The contrast was awesome and created a very moody scene.
When I saw this moose from a distance I didn't think anything other than he was big and I wanted to get pictures. When I got close and he turned his head the right way, I saw something I had never seen before. His antler on the one side didn't form together and it looked as if he had two antlers on that side. This was unique and exciting because I may never find another moose like this again.
King of Domain
There are some animals you come across that take your breath away immediately. This caribou was so large and looked so good, there was no way I was going to look for another animal this day. I tracked him for hours, and he moved around as if he knew he was the largest caribou around. Edition of 40.
There are certain animals you never forget about when you see them. I had seen this mule deer before, but didn't get a good photo. So when I came upon him again, I wasn't going to leave him until I got a good shot, and after this photo I left him and let him go on his way. Edition of 40.
All Out Battle
The lead up to this fight was many hours of bugling and showing off each others size across the river. Finally, one bull decided to swim the river and show the other bull who was boss. Within seconds of the bull touching land, the two large bull elk went at it and battled for 4-5 minutes before the challenger won the fight. Edition of 40.
There was no doubt between the other bull elk who was king of the area. This is the largest bull elk I have ever seen, and he was a very aggressive bull. He enjoyed going on high points and looking over his harem and showing how large he was to any competing bull. Edition of 40.
Alaskan moose are the largest sub species of moose. At the shoulder they can be 6 foot, and when they are close they are huge. In this picture, they look as big as ants because of just how large the landscape is leading up to Denali. Edition of 40.
Coming upon this monster in the woods was a great surprise! I had seen a moose in the distance, but honestly had no idea how large it was. It wasn't until it was standing right in front of me that I realized he was maybe the largest moose around. His pose when he saw me let me know he was boss. Edition of 40.
There is no time to rest in the fall if you are a bull elk. You are tirelessly trying to protect your harem and fight off challengers. Just as the first light was hitting this large mountain, a bull elk gives off an echoing bugle on a cold morning. Edition of 40.
After days of searching for moose in the morning, this moose finally presented itself. He stuck out because of how small the bushes were and how large he was. The sun was still rising, and darkening my camera setting allowed me to capture this moose silhouetted on the ridge with an orange sky. Edition of 40.
During the fall is when the elk rut begins to get into full swing, and the bulls become very aggressive. This bull was the largest of the area, and after mating all the females in his harem, he left them to check the rest of his territory for other females. Edition of 40.
High Valley Call
The elk rut is an exciting time to be in the mountains. Bull elk are fighting for the right to mate, and their bugles can be heard throughout the valleys. This large elk was on the move and looking for more females from the highest part of the meadow. Edition of 40.
Caribou are an incredible in shape animal, and can travel miles every single day. This caribou had just shed his velvet off the antlers a couple of days prior, and was looking across the valleys wondering where he would go next. Edition of 40.
Before moose loose their velvet in the fall, they will hang out with other bulls. Even though these moose have greatly differing antler sizes, the larger moose wouldn't tolerate the younger moose being around if he no longer had velvet on his antlers. They would play a little and then get a drink in this beautiful backcountry kettle pond. Edition of 40.
As the last light of the day hits this elk, it gives out a bellowing bugle to let the other bulls know he is not fading away. Edition of 40.
The Grand Tetons are a magnificent mountain range. This was one of the larger bull moose I had seen in the park, but when compared to the mountains it didn't seem so large. Edition of 40.
A Coastal Walk
Seeing animals along the coast makes the coast that much more beautiful. I'm glad there are places nature can still enjoy nature. With steep coastal cliffs, these elk were moving to reach their feeding grounds for the night. Edition of 40.
I had been tracking this bull elk for a few days. When he began to approach the hill I was on I stayed still, and when he got close he bugled and was above me. Edition of 40.
When the evening light gets perfect, finding an animal becomes very important. I don't even know how far we searched and how long we searched to find an animal because we knew the light was going to be good. Caribou are skittish animals, so we had to be careful to not spook it as well. We did everything right and this caribou went around the hill and posed in front of the beautiful distant mountains with the clouds rolling over them
Moose will go into ponds to eat algae from the bottom of them. They can also go for a swim and have a little reprieve from all the bugs too. After sticking his head into the pond, a moose begins to move to find another spot and water drains from him as he moves. Edition of 40.
There are nice bucks of all kinds across the country. Most of the time the deer has nice round antlers, but sometimes they flatten out. A palmated buck is one that his antlers almost look as if they have webbed and connected together. Edition of 40.
The combination of mountains, river, animals and great light is hard to beat. There is just something special about being in a place that looks like it could have been this way 100's of years ago. These elk slowly move across the river to their nightly grounds. Edition of 40.
Back and Forth
Seeing two animals go head-to-head is always exciting. When animals fight, it is normally very serious and they aren't just playing around. And when two large animals get together, it's even more exciting to see just how powerful they are. The intensity of the fights can even lead to death sometimes. Edition of 40.
The plants and bushes in the tundra can be very tall. I often forget just how big the moose are because they are usually only a foot or 2 above the bushes. This massive moose had no problem moving around because he was so much taller than everything. Edition of 40
The grandeur of Denali is hard to explain to someone who has never been to the park before. I had to walk a few miles to finally have an opportunity to photograph these caribou with Denali and have the caribou not look like tiny dots on the horizon. Edition of 40.
Being in the mountains on a chilly morning with fog with exciting for me! It's just a different feeling I only get in the mountains. After tracking down this elk, I knew he would cross the Athabasca River because his females were on the other side, and when he did it made for a beautiful scene. Edition of 40.
Being from the south, a large white-tail deer are what many men dream about often. Photographing a buck this large brought back memories of being in the woods as a kid. Edition of 40.
Mule deer can have large and wide antlers. Even though this buck looked young, seeing his antlers as he walked this ridge from a distance made him appear much older. Edition of 40.
The backcountry of Denali seems as if it is endless. There is so much terrain, and 99% of it is wild and untouched. Animals, like this moose, can roam for years and never see a human. After tracking this guy a long distance, I was thrilled when he decided to walk over the hill and come my direction. Edition of 40.
Fall in Denali happens much earlier than in the lower 48. By the beginning of September it is sometimes over and winter has already moved in. A bull moose looks over the quickly changing landscape and knows winter will soon be upon him. Edition of 40.
A High Look
It is amazing how much ground a caribou can cover in one day. It seems as if they are continuously on the move. A caribou pauses to look back to see if other caribou are following him before he crests the ridge and continues on. Edition of 40.
All morning it was cloudy and foggy. As the sun started to burn off the fog, this deer started to move around more. Just as the sun broke through completely, the buck stopped and stretched as if he was soaking in the suns warmth. Edition of 40.
These dear kept coming closer to me as they were fighting. They did not care what was around them as they were to worried about the other buck. One time as they went to buck heads they were face to face and looking at each other in the eye. Edition of 40.
Denali is such a large place, but yet is difficult to find the right angles to photograph. There are so many undulations in the tundra and large bushes, that I really have to plan out where to photograph a moose as it moves in the tundra. Once I found this open area, I waited and captured the moose with a beautiful mountain behind him. Edition of 40.
Caribou can have very large and very different antlers than any other caribou. Their antlers are not uniform in shape like elk and deer. Finding two larger caribou hanging out and then them moving together on a ridge made for a terrific Alaskan tundra photograph. Edition of 40.
Early Morning Beauty
Watching a mother and calf move slowly across Wonder Lake as the sun rose was inspiring. The reason they were in the lake was to eat the plants from the bottom of the lake. As the calf looks back it catches a glimpse of the awesome power of Denali. Edition of 40.
On a cold morning in Canada, this bull elk was busy chasing younger males to keep them from his females. When he stopped to bugle, the steam rolled off his back and from his mouth when he called. Edition of 40.
My favorite time of the year is fall in Denali. Just watching the landscape change and turn a bright red is incredible. Whenever I find a large bull moose in the tundra, it makes the colors look that much more vibrant. Edition of 40.
Elk are very active in the morning during the rut trying to chase off other males and corral their females. After an exhausting morning, an elk takes a break and just reflects on the morning and looks over his herim. Edition of 40.
If I was another bull moose, I would not be happy seeing these antlers come my way. With that many points and width, there aren't many moose that can give this guy a real challenge. Edition of 40.
On a cold morning, the brown grass looks white due to the frost. This wide antlered elk has lost his females and calls to them hoping they will come back. Edition of 40.
Mating season is serious for any animal. They only get a short period of time each year to prove their worth and get to mate. Every male wants to pass on their genes to the next generation. To do that they have to beat out the other males and win the female. Edition of 40.
Redwood trees are the largest trees in the world. With all the trees so large, it is often hard to tell just how large they are. In the morning as this elk was just starting to move around, the nearby redwoods towered around it. Edition of 40.
The bull on the bottom had just lost a fight and swam the river to get away from the other bull. Waiting on the other side was another large bull elk. The elk that had just lost a battle had to fight again just to be able to get on land and get away from the other bulls. Edition of 40.
Any time it snows, I get excited because of the different photo opportunities snow offers. It was well before light when I saw this deer, but since it was snowing, I photographed him and it was the only photo I got that day of deer in the falling snow. Edition of 40.
Bull elk don't get to take a break during the rut. They are constantly on the move and trying to keep up with their herim. After his females continually ran away from him, he let out a deep strong bugle that let them know he was not happy. Edition of 40.
Male moose will hang out together sometimes before they lose their velvet. Once they lose their velvet they become more aggressive toward each other as mating season approaches. These two large moose noticed me across the ravine and both stared to let me know that they were kings of the area.
Hearing the sound of an elk in the fall is great whether you are close or far away. I was much closer than I planned with this bull elk. After cornering me, he bugled right in front of me and made me forget about the situation I was in for a few seconds. Edition of 40.
Fall and winter sometimes happen at the same time in Denali. As the distant mountains get covered in snow, a bull moose looks over the red tundra wondering how much longer he has before winter sets in. Edition of 40.
Throughout the mountains there are areas that have been burned naturally, and that fire is needed for the ecosystem to stay healthy. After a fire, new plants and flowers will begin to grow and create a new area for animals to eat. This bull elk had females more on his mind than eating, but his ladies didn't want to leave the burnt forest. Edition of 40.
Caribou can move up to 25 miles a day. They be in one area one day, and the next be on a completely different mountain. Tracking this guy was a very tiring experience. I finally got ahead of him and waited for him to cross this river and get this shot, before I hurried on before him again and set up for another shot. Edition of 40.
I enjoy seeing an elks breath on a cold morning in the fall. After a bull runs around some chasing other males off, he has more breath that shows in the cool air. Here he was letting out a long bugle that lasted for many seconds. Edition of 40.
A Winter Walk
Moose are well adapted for the snow because of their long legs. It is very rare to see snow coming all the way up to a moose's belly, because they have such long legs. On this early morning, it was really snowing and the moose was headed from the meadow to the forest to get out of the snow. Edition of 40.
When it snows on the plains, it really makes the brown landscape pretty. This tall mule deer buck had just chased off another buck, and it almost seemed as he basked in his win in this quiet corner of the thicket. Edition of 40.
Searching for white-tail deer is very time consuming. I might find a number of deer, but many run before I can ever get my camera focused on them. When the forest is covered in snow, I want even more so to find a buck to photograph. This large buck did run at first, but when he turned to check me out one last time before disappearing I was ready! Edition of 40.
Bull elk in the rut will do anything to protect their harem. This bull had to cross the river because a couple of his ladies did, and there was another bull waiting for them on the other side. As he was almost done crossing he let out a big bugle to let the other bull know who was boss. Edition of 40.
Moose usually have no trouble seeing where they are going because of how big they are. As he was coming up a hill, he wanted to see over it as soon as he could to see if any other moose were around. Edition of 40.
It is hard to believe a moose can regrow its antlers this large every year. They drop their antlers in the winter, and then regrow them this large by August. This moose had a neat design in his velvet that made it look like a coffee mocha. Edition of 40.
With antlers like these, one misplacement could be its last. When moose get serious and are really knocking heads, its amazing that one doesn't gore the other all the time. I would make sure and have my eyes locked on my competitor too. Edition of 40.
Deer get very serious when the rut begins. It is their one and only time of the year to mate, and only the largest and toughest will get to mate. These two young mule deer bucks were not going to give up easily. Edition of 40.
Moose are not seen very often in the winter in Yellowstone. They move off to different places in the winter. This young moose came out of the woods and walked right to a willow patch. When he was done eating he finished crossing the snow meadow and moved on. Edition of 40.
Bull elk do not move around much in the winter. They are exhausted from the fall rut and are trying to conserve energy. This elk might patrol this entire area in the summer, but during the winter will stay where it can get food the easiest. Edition of 40.
Field of Elk
During the elk rut, bulls gather their females into a harem. There is no harem to large that a bull does not think he can watch over. Over the course of a few days this bull was challenged many times by other bulls, but he won every time and his harem continued to grow. Edition of 40.
On this very foggy morning I could barely see anything. As I was going along I saw a few deer and decided to stop since I had not seen anything else. As I was watching they came together and started interacting. Next thing I knew a couple of them were on their hind legs punching at each other. With the added fog in the scene it did not look real. Edition of 40.
Some elk make a great display while rutting and rounding up females. This bull elk gave some of the best looks while going for females. Here he was trying to get on one side of a female and convince her to go back the other way. Edition of 40.
Watching white-tail bucks chase each other around is fascinating. You can tell when one is really trying to intimidate another buck, because their neck will be twice the normal size. Edition of 40.
When people think of seeing an elk, they often envision it being in a meadow. On the California coast there are a few spots where elk walk the beach searching for food during the winter. Edition of 40.
Being near elk in the fall is great for the ears. There is not much of a better sound in nature than an elk bugle. As the trees begin to change, a bull elk lets a call out to ring through the woods. Edition of 40.
On a cold morning the breath of an elk is more obvious. While running to scare off another bull elk, he was bugling and the steam from his breath was rolling behind him as he ran. Edition of 40.
If I were a moose, growing up in Denali would be paradise. There is tons of food, endless territory, and not many humans. The beauty of the landscape is unmatched, and moose can roam for miles a day and be happy in each place they go. This moose was ridge walking and taking in the beauty that he gets to call home. Edition of 40.
Bull elk have very symmetrical antlers, and most are very similar in how they are built. But not all elk are alike. Some have more length, width, mass, or points. I really liked this guy because of his mass, and the sticker points he had off his main royal. Edition of 40.
Under the Canopy
One morning it was snowing in the Hoh rainforest and I was photographing the beauty of that. While walking the forest I ran into a deer. It was different seeing the forest covered in snow and the deer moving around eating the lush mosses. Edition of 40.
This elk was in a hurry all morning trying to keep his harem together. As he stopped to look around, steam rose off his body and you could see in his eyes he was tired of running around. Edition of 40.
The antlers on an elk rise a good distance above their head. I can't imagine having to try and hold that much weight up on my neck. This large elk had the best territory and view in the area, and his white points showed off how good of shape he was in. Edition of 40.
This baby elk fawn could have only been born a few hours prior. It was the smallest elk I have ever seen, and struggled to walk around. It was so small that it couldn't even see of the small sage brush, so mom had to be very careful and look out for predators. Edition of 40.
Pronghorn are now an easy animal to photograph. They are extremely fast, and don't stay still often. This good sized male was focused on a group of females, so I had more of an opportunity to get him to stay still. Edition of 40.
It was very easy to spot this moose on the white landscape. It was working its way around the stream to hopefully find some plants to eat. Edition of 40.
A Learning Look
The curiousness of this fawn was awesome. It would come right up to us and check us out and then run back to mom. Mom did not seem to mind that it was doing this either. It would slowly inch closer and closer, then when it spooked itself it would leave. Young animals are always trying to learn. Edition of 40.
During the winter elk are are more trying to survive and sustain than grow. Most of their food is dead or buried under the deep snow. It is not an easy task for animals in Yellowstone to survive the winter, and this bull elk would hardly move each day to save his energy. Edition of 40.
For many years elk were not a part of the Smokey Mountain ecosystem. They were hunted out and remained gone until being reintroduced in 2001. Hearing an elks bugle ring through the mountains once again is a great thing! Edition of 40.
In a Vast Area
Many of the moose in Denali are very large. They just grow bigger up there. When looking at this picture, though, you hardly notice the moose because the area surrounded the moose is exceptionally big. Denali's open valleys seem to go forever. Edition of 40.